This website uses its own and third-party cookies. Some of these cookies are used to develop analytical statistics of visits to the webpage, others to manage advertising or even others are necessary for the correct management of the site. If you continue to browse or click in accept we consider you accept the conditions for their use. You can get more information, or learn how to change the settings in our cookies policy?
Versión Española Versión Mexicana Ibercampus English Version Version française Versione italiana

19/6/2021  
    Ibercampus  | Editorial Board | Who we are | Ideology | Contact | Advertising rates | Subscription | RSS RSS
Policies
Inclusion policies
R&D
Employment
Economics
Culture
Green strategies
Health
Society and consumer
Sports
Debates
Interviews
Education
Grants & internships
Training
Trends
Enterprises & CSR
 Enterprises & CSR
ACNUR
AEGON
AIR LIQUIDE
ALCATEL-LUCENT
ALLIANZ
ARCELORMITTAL
ASIFIN
ASSICURAZIONI GENERALI
AXA
BANCO SANTANDER
BASF
BAYER
BBVA
BNP PARIBAS
CARREFOUR
DAIMLER AG
DEUTSCHE BANK
DEUTSCHE BÖRSE
DEUTSCHE TELEKOM
E.ON
ENEL
ENI
FORTIS
FRANCE TÉLÉCOM
GROUPE DANONE
IBERDROLA
INDITEX
ING GROUP
INTESA SANPAOLO
L'ORÉAL
LVMH
MUNICH RE
NOKIA
PHILIPS
RENAULT
REPSOL YPF
RWE
SAINT GOBAIN
SANOFI-AVENTIS
SAP AG
SCHNEIDER ELECTRIC
SIEMENS AG
SOCIÉTÉ GÉNÉRALE
SUEZ
TELECOM ITALIA
TELEFÓNICA
TOTAL S.A.
UNICREDIT
UNILEVER
VINCI
VIVENDI
VOLKSWAGEN

DEBATES

What is the universe made of?

Digital simulation showing the large-scale distribution of matter, with filaments and knots. CREDIT Credit: V.Springel, Max-Planck Institut für Astrophysik

Matter known as ordinary, which makes up everything we know, corresponds to only 5% of the Universe. Approximately half of this percentage still eluded detection. Numerical simulations made it possible to predict that the rest of this ordinary matter should be located in the large-scale structures that form the ´cosmic web´ at temperatures between 100,000 and 10 million degrees. A team led by a researcher from the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, observed this phenomenon directly.
Ibercampus 3/12/2015 Send to a friend
Comparte esta noticia en TwitterFacebookTwitterdel.icio.usYahooRSS
The research shows that the majority of the missing ordinary matter is found in the form of a very hot gas associated with intergalactic filaments. The article reporting this discovery is published in the journal Nature.

Galaxies are formed when ordinary matter collapses then cools down. In order to understand the origin of this formation, it was vital to discover in what form and where the ordinary matter that we do not perceive -- known as the ´missing baryons´ -- is found. To do this, the astrophysicists from UNIGE and the Ecole polytechnique fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) took an interest in Abell 2744, a massive cluster of galaxies with a complex distribution of dark and luminous matter at its center. They observed this cluster with the XMM space telescope, which is capable of detecting the signature of very hot gas due to its sensitivity to X-rays.

Hot gas at the core of the filaments

Large-scale galaxy surveys have shown that the distribution of ordinary matter in the Universe is not homogeneous. Instead, under the action of gravity, matter is concentrated into filamentary structures, forming a network of knots and links called the ´cosmic web´. The regions experiencing the highest gravitational force collapse and form the knots of the network, such as Abell 2744. Comparable to neural networks, these knots then connect to one another through filaments, wherein the researchers identified the presence of gas, and consequently, the missing baryons. The astrophysicists pointed XMM in the direction of the areas where they suspected to find the presence of filaments, and therefore, the presence of 10-million degree hot gas structures. For the first time, they were able to measure the temperature and density of these objects, and found that they corresponded to the predictions of the numerical models. For this reason, we now have a grasp of the form taken by the missing ordinary matter.

Will the amount of ordinary matter in the universe soon be known?

This research is a very significant validation of the models of galaxy formation in the Universe. "Now we must verify that the discovery of Abell 2744´s missing baryons is applicable to the entire universe. This will consist in studying these filamentary regions in detail, and measuring their temperature distribution and the various atoms that compose them, in order to understand how many heavy elements there are in the universe," says Dominique Eckert, led scientist. In fact, if the researchers manage to measure the atoms in these filaments, they will be able to estimate the number of heavy nuclei formed by stars since the beginning of the universe. In order to deepen this research, the European Space Agency (ESA) is in the process of developing a new space telescope. Switzerland and the researchers from UNIGE are especially involved in this project. The telescope, named Athena, should be operational in the mid-2020s.

Other issues Debates
What are we waiting to boost, link financial / digital education and improve information?
Education 4.0: Beware the dark side of university restructuring
"Europe must motivate young people and give them the opportunity to shape public debate"
Self-driving cars in the EU: from science fiction to reality
All you need to know about the 2019 European elections
Stronger anti-money laundering supervision for a stable banking and financial sector – Q&A
How fair do Europeans think life in the EU is?
How travelling in Europe can boost active citizenship
Who´s smarter in the classroom: men or women?
EU elections: how many MEPs will each country get in 2019?

Subscribe free to our newsletter
Vanity Fea
The Covid Worldwide Conspiracy: Tucker Carlson Interviews Dr. Peter McCullough
José Ángel García Landa
Human Capital
Mobilizing commitment around change
Marta Santos Romero
We can all be leaders
VIDEOCOMMUTING A NEW ORGANIZATIONAL REALITY THAT POSITIVELY IMPACTS EMPLOYEES
Mar Souto Romero
Financial inclusion
Financial Education For All!
Carlos Trias
Brusselian Lights
European elections (I): which words are more used in the European political manifestos?
Raúl Muriel Carrasco
Humor and Political Communication
Comisión de Arbitraje, Quejas y Deontología (Spain) (3) You can´t be too careful
Felicísimo Valbuena
Want your own blog? Want to be read by universities?
Find out here
Books
"Tthe study of human behaviour was political from the beginning"
The EU "An Obituary"
Startup Cities "Why Only a Few Cities Dominate the Global Startup Scene"
Blockchain Revolution "How the Technology Behind Bitcoin and Cryptocurrency Is Changing the World "
Doughnut Economics "Seven Ways to Think Like a 21st-Century Economist "
The People vs Tech "How the Internet Is Killing Democracy"
Theses and dissertations
1 The Covid Worldwide Conspiracy: Tucker Carlson Interviews Dr. Peter McCullough
2 Gain of Genocidal Function
Legal Advise | Privacy Policy | Editorial Board | Who we are | Ideology | Contact | Advertising rates | RSS RSS