Different strains of influenza viruses that emerge over time differ mainly by two surface proteins, accumulating mutational changes very rapidly, thus increasing the diversity of the microorganism and complicating treatment with antivirals and vaccine experts recommend applying every year.
The virion or viral particle has a diameter of between 80 and 120 nm, with a generally spherical appearance. Their shape is determined by a protein matrix layer which acts as a structural component under the membrane, serving as a connection between surface proteins and genome interior.
In the membrane there are two types of proteins: hemagglutinin, which binds to receptors on the cell so that the viral and cell membranes fuse and the viral genome to penetrate into the cytoplasm; and neuraminidase, which helps to separate the newly formed membrane of the host cell to go out and look for new ´victims´ virions. Also here the channel protein (M2) where they enter protons and crucial when the virus plus stolen lipidic compounds when the host cell by budding´desempaqueta´ emerging pathogen.
Within the virion genome is constituted of eight RNA molecules of various lengths, which are associated with nucleoprotein filament for forming large coils. Furthermore polymerase complex, an enzyme that helps generate new RNA copies, some of which are used to manufacture more viral proteins and other packaged into new virus appears.
To make this model in 3D Russian designers have reviewed the scientific studies on the virus of recent years, and microscopy images and data obtained by X-ray crystallography The same team has developed one of the best infographics known about the virus Ebola.